In many jurisdictions, the roles of judges and attorneys in modern civil procedure are becoming multi-faceted and, accordingly, more and more complex. This paper outlines the Japanese situation, focusing on the most recent reform of the Japanese Code of Civil Procedure (the New Code), which occurred in 1996. The reform introduced several innovative devices, none of which contained sanction provisions for implementation or enforcement of their legal effect. The inclination towards non-sanction schemes of this kind reflects the recent trend in reforms. The non-sanction scheme inevitably has an influence on the roles of judges and attorneys. Therefore, it is necessary to examine whether a non-sanction scheme is the most desirable device for controlling the roles of judges and attorneys from a long-term perspective.
Roles of Judges and Attorneys under the Non-Sanction Scheme in Japanese Civil Procedure,
27 Hastings Int'l & Comp. L. Rev. 31
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