The Model Penal Code identifies five levels of culpable states of mind significant to criminal liability. Professor Robinson reviews the evolution and refinement of those distinctions and considers current and future implications of viewing the Model Penal Code scheme as one stage in a continuing development.
Paul H. Robinson,
A Brief History of Distinctions in Criminal Culpability,
31 Hastings L.J. 815
Available at: https://repository.uchastings.edu/hastings_law_journal/vol31/iss4/2